Textiles are heterogeneous structures with highly anisotropic material properties. This means that the material properties of a textile like strength or elasticity are significantly dependent on the direction of the load and the load case itself. This dependency can be used to develop new adapted material with customized properties. A well-known textile based material is the fibre reinforced plastic (FRP). FRP’s have advantageous properties, such as relative low weight to strength ratios compared to metallic materials and other common structural materials. Therefore, they are used more and more on lightweight designs in aerospace application, construction sector, wind turbines and also automotive industry.
Even though FRP’s have much better mechanical properties, they have a considerably different material behaviour than conventional materials, which has to be taken into account during product design. The simple exchange of the material without design change is usually not possible and would most likely not give the desired results. Thus, a fibre-based modelling is necessary to find an optimal design that accounts for the anisotropic material behaviour. The complexity of textile structures and the different scale levels make it essential to analyse the composition of a textile based composite. In Fig. 1 the structural hierarchy of a composite from the fibre to the part is shown.
Figure 1 Hierarchical levels of composite structures
In fibre-based modelling techniques this hierarchical structure is taken into account by a multi-scale modelling. This is necessary because the different scales cannot be considered in one type of simulation. In the multi-scale approach the behaviour on a lower level is calculated and the results extrapolated to the higher level. In the last years the division of three levels for composite simulations have been established. These levels are Micro, Meso and Macro as shown in Figure 2. The fibre-fibre interactions inside of composite structures are usually neglected as they have only a sub ordinary influence in respect to the yarn-yarn interaction and would considerable raise the computation costs.
Figure 2 Multi-scale approach on textile based composites
The input parameters for a textile-based multi-scale analysis have to be determined experimentally. For instance, the yarn composition and the fibre volume fraction can be found by thermo gravimetrical analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure textile can be determined by micron-resolution computed tomography (μCT) or by the knowledge of the production process itself and with textile simulation programs like GeoDict.
Our research facility, Institut für Textiltechnik Aachen (ITA) der RWTH Aachen University, has over 80 years of experience in textile industry. Over 100 doctoral candidates and 200 – 300 student are doing constant research on various topics. All the mentioned characterizations of the material behaviour and the necessary tests can also be performed at our institute.
• Kwon, Young, Allen, David H., Talreja, Ramesh R. (Eds.), “Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Composite Materials and Structures”, 2008, ISBN 978-0-387-68556-4
• P. Wriggers, M. Hain: “Micro-Meso-Macro Modelling of Composite Materials”, Volume 7 of the series Computational Methods in Applied Sciences pp 105-122, 2007
• A, Mark, A. Berce, R. Sandboge, et al.: “Multi-scale simulation of paperboard edge wicking using a fiber-resolving virtual paper model”, Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal 27 no.2/2012
• H. Krieger, S. Stapleton, G. Seide, T. Gries: Permeability model of a woven fabric based on micron resolution computed tomography data, Proceedings of the American Society for Composites, 2014
Aalto University Department of Chemistry has active research in developing new materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion applications. Though the world has witnessed a boost in solar and wind based renewable energy production within the last ten to twenty years the storage of energy still reminds as an unsolved problem. Electrochemical energy storage is attractive because of its ability to respond fast on sudden changes in energy production and demand. However, high price is the major obstacle for adopting these convenient energy storage technologies.
In Aalto University Department of Chemistry has ensemble of four professor focusing on development of new energy material. Profs. Tanja Kallio and Kari Laasonen have been working with electrocatalyst materials for fuel cells and electrolysers whereas Profs. Maarit Karppinen and Antti Karttunen focus on novel layered inorganic organic material for various energy applications. Both the teams have one experimentalist and one computational expert which enable profound understanding and rational design of the new materials. Also common research interest between the teams is found.
Hydrogen economy is based on conversion of excess renewable electrical energy to hydrogen for later utilization as a fuel in fuel cell vehicles or conversion back to electricity upon need. Membrane electrolysers enable production of high quality pure hydrogen gas by using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. These membrane hydrolysers operating at low temperature utilize precious and scarce noble metal catalyst materials for the above mentioned conversion reactions. Kallio and Laasonen’s team aim is to replace these with new hybrid materials synthetized from abundant and inexpensive starting materials. They have recently introduced a one-step synthesis method for synthetizing catalyst comprising of iron and carbon which shows similar catalytic activity to platinum for hydrogen evolution reaction (M. Tavakkoli et al. Angedwandte Chemie 54 (2015) 4535). By carefully controlling the synthesis conditions single graphene layer encapsulated iron nanoparticles on carbon nanotube support can be produced at the same synthesis. The extremely high activity of the novel electrocatalyst is based on high catalytic activity of the graphene sheltered iron nanoparticles combined with the good conductivity of the CNT support. Recently the group has introduce another type electrocatalyst, maghmetite/CNT, comprising of abundant elements for the other hydrolyser reaction, the oxygen evolution reaction (M. Tavakkoli et al. J. Mater. Chem. A, accepted). Also this material shows good performance and stability and it is synthetized using a similar rector but different parameters. This type of materials will be game changers in electrocatalysis.
Energy storage is also needed in numerous portable and wearable applications. For high esthetic value applications transparent components are desired. In Karppinen’s new hybrid Li-ion battery electrodes synthesized adding inorganic and organic layers on top of each other in an atomic/molecular layer-by-layer manner (M. Nisula, M. Karppinen, Nano Lett. 16 (2016) 1276; M. Nisula et al. Chem. Mater. 27 (2015) 6987). Such hybrid electrodes are exciting candidates for transparent and flexible Li-organic electrode materials for the emerging all-solid-state thin-film Li-ion microbattery. The particularly attractive features in our approach are that (i) the organic electrode materials are composed of earth-abundant, environmentally friendly and light elements and thus display very high theoretical specific capacities, and (ii) the state-of-the-art ALD/MLD technique employed for the layer-by-layer fabrication allows various 3D micro-architectures and thereby significantly larger active surface areas and enhanced battery performance.
To meet the clean, low carbon footprint and resource-efficient energy production challenges, fuel cells provide an unsurpassed opportunity to cut harmful greenhouse emissions, to increase energy security, and to improve primary energy conversion efficiency especially in decentralised energy production. However, in the fuel cell industry, inability to provide cost-efficiency, energy efficiency, and long lifetime simultaneously in the same system has been a major challenge and has prevented fuel cells from truly penetrating the market.
The total life cycle cost, consisting of the investment cost, the operation and maintenance cost, and the fuel cost, defines the true market potential for a new energy production technology. The core of the fuel cell system is the stack, which has to address the key parameters of cost, efficiency and lifetime. Otherwise the system will not be self-sustaining on the market.
Elcogen has designed and developed a new, proprietary Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack based on planar anode-supported cells, which provides a combination of better efficiency, longer lifetime, and lower cost. This disruptive capability is a result of low operating temperature, and product design that is not only innovative and proprietary but also scalable and mass-manufacturable.
Figure. Elcogen’s stack products: E1000 (1kW) on the left, and E3000 (3kW) on the right.
Elcogen chose to work exclusively with SOFC because it has clear advantages over other fuel cell technologies and the rest of the power generation technologies due to its high electrical efficiency and fuel flexibility (e.g., biogas, natural gas, hydrogen). This is best seen in small and medium size stationary applications producing power or combined heat and power.
Elcogen is fully responsible for the design (and related intellectual properties), and to ensure the stack performance and quality, also carries out stack assembly and conditioning. Elcogen is scaling up the stack pilot manufacturing while planning for mass manufacturing with fully automated production lines. As part of its lean operations, Elcogen collaborates with best-in-class all-European specialized component manufacturing partners, who have in-depth experience in cost-efficient mass manufacturing.
First strategic customers are currently validating Elcogen’s stacks and negotiations are ongoing to increase the customer base. Elcogen’s early target markets are Central Europe, Japan, Korea, and North America.
Elcogen (Elcogen Oy) is a Finnish, privately owned SME located in Vantaa, Finland, 5 minutes away from the Helsinki-Vantaa airport. Elcogen has over 150 man years of research & development invested in its stack technologies. Extensive research institute, university and supplier networks are strongly contributing to the Elcogen’s research & development, and operations.
In the past two decades, a lot of attention has been put on Electrochemical Capacitors (ECs), also known as supercapacitors, since they are one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices for high power delivery or energy harvesting applications. The charge storage mechanism in supercapacitor electrodes is achieved through electrostatic attraction between the ions of an electrolyte and the charges present at the electrode surface, leading to a charge separation at the electrolyte/electrode interface that works as a dielectric capacitor. Since no faradaic reaction is involved in the charge storage mechanism, supercapacitors hold higher power density (15kW/kg) and much better cyclability (>106) as compared with batteries.
Figure: Schematics of a supercapacitors cell assembled with two electrodes containing high surface area porous carbons. Under polarization, ions are adsorbed to balance the charge present on the carbon surface (anions at the positive electrode and cations at the negative). The charge is released during discharge. Inset: zoom of a porous carbon grain of the electrode, showing a schematic of ions adsorbed inside the pores of the carbon.
In summary, batteries keep our devices working throughout the day—that is, they have a high energy density - but they can take hours to recharge when they run down. For rapid power delivery and recharging (i.e., high power density), supercapacitors are used. One such application for ECs is regenerative braking, used to recover power in cars and electric mass transit vehicles (trams, buses…) that would otherwise lose braking energy as heat.
The most important challenge ECs are facing today is to increase the device energy density to reach 10 Wh per kg and more, moving ECs closer to batteries in terms of energy density and cutting the cost at the same time. The energy density (Wh) of a supercapacitor changes according to
where W is the energy (Wh), C the capacitance (F) and V the nominal voltage (V). The energy (and power as well) is usually normalized by the weight or volume of the device or the electrode (it is very important to distinguish between those) to obtain energy and power densities. A high cell voltage (V), which is mainly limited by the electrolyte stability, is needed to reach high energy (eq.1). However, the development of a high-voltage electrolyte (>4.5V) that preserves high ionic conductivity and low viscosity - the Holy Grail for the battery and supercapacitor communities – appears really complex. Increasing the energy density (eq. 1) can be also achieved by increasing the capacitance C of the carbon, which is controlled by the carbon / electrolyte interface. Basically, it requires designing the carbon--electrolyte interface for optimizing the adsorption of ions from the electrolyte to maximize the charge stored (F) per gram or per cubic centimeter of carbon.
At Université Paul Sabatier, P. Simon and his co-workers (P.L. Taberna and B. Daffos, http://www.energie-rs2e.com/fr) are studying the dynamics and adsorption of ions of an electrolyte inside nanoporous carbons, in the aim of designing high performance carbons for supercapacitors applications. They have developed for several years collaborations with other groups, and have shown that the charge storage was maximum when the pore size of the carbon was in the same range of the ion size (less than 1 nm), defying the conventional wisdom that pores larger than the ion size were needed. Such a behavior was explained by a change in the organization of the ion and solvent molecules in these confined pores alloying ions to get closer to carbon surface. Electrochemical Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (EQCM) experiments have shown that ions were entering the pores partially desolvated from solvent molecules, that could explain the fast ion dynamics preserved in the confined pores. Moving from large-size supercapacitors to micro-supercapacitors, the preparation of bulk films of porous carbon with pore size less than 1 nm has led to the preparation of high energy density micro-devices that could complement, or even sometimes replace, micro-batteries.
More generally, the use of nanoporous carbons has led to the development of supercapacitors with improved energy density. These devices are currently used today in many applications including transportation. Examples can be found with Mazda and Citroën cars (stop and start function), tramways for braking energy recovery (Bombardier, Alstom with Maxwell and Blue Solutions), electric buses or electric boats (where the autonomy is limited to few km but with an added value of fast charging in about 30 s during passenger exchange). Aside, harbor cranes (to recover kinetic energy), airplanes (A380 for emergency door opening), cordless tools and toys as well as power electronics are other applications of supercapacitors currently available.
P. Simon has received several awards in the sole 2015 year: Rusnano prize, CNRS silver medal, SF2M Charles EICHNER medal. He was also invited to present these activities at SF2M (member of FEMS) annual meeting focused on Materials for Energy Generation http://www.sf2m.fr/JA2015/JA2015.htm.
Patrice Simon, Professor, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3,
Laboratoire CIRIMAT UMR CNRS 5085,
118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex
The key parameters related to the cathode materials for commercial use are a high specific capacity, good cycling stability, capacity retention at high current rates, as well as the simplicity of the synthesis process . The aim of the program, realized within the framework of the Project III 45004 and financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, was to find new, simple and eco-efficient methods for obtaining good-quality cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, i.e. LiFePO4 and Li2FeSiO4. A special care was taken to examine the relationship between crystal structure and lithium diffusion, and to relate the synthesis methods with the properties of the obtained powders. Several approaches to overcome low intrinsic electronic conductivity were explored: carbon coating by proper carbon-containing source, the modification of powder’s morphology, and anion doping.
The olivine type LiFePO4 was synthesized via a simple and inexpensive route by aqueous co-precipitation of an Fe(II) precursor material in molten stearic acid and subsequent heat treatment at different temperatures (600, 700, and 800 °C) . Stearic acid served as both surfactant and dispersant, which decomposes to carbon during pyrolytic degradation and creates reductive atmosphere that can prevent Fe2+ oxidation. The obtained powders were composites of olivine type LiFePO4 and carbon, with heterosite FePO4 as a minor phase, evidenced for the first time in the literature as a byproduct of the synthesis. Electrochemical characteristics of the composites were evaluated by using galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The optimal powder (obtained at 700 °C) delivered discharge capacity of 160mAhg−1, which is quite near the theoretical value, showing that heterosite FePO4 phase also participated in the electrochemical reactions. The applied synthesis route does not suppose any specific or expensive equipment, and therefore can be easily scaled up for commercialization.
HRTEM image of the F-doped LiFePO4/C powder. Amorphous carbon film, with a thickness of 3 nm, is deposited on the (121) crystal plane of the orthorhombic LiFePO4.
The same synthesis route was applied for the synthesis of fluorine-doped LiFePO4/C, using lithium fluoride as both lithium and fluorine source . Crystal structure refinement showed that doping with fluorine ions preserves olivine structure within which fluorine ions are solely positioned at O(2) oxygen site. In addition, the concentration of Li-Fe antisite defects was reduced. The obtained powder showed excellent electrochemical performances with high rate capability. Theoretical modeling confirmed and supported the experimental findings. The fluorine substitution of O(2) oxygen is energetically most stable solution. Instead of insulating state characteristic for pure LiFePO4 compound, a metallic solution with finite density of states at the Fermi energy is predicted for fluorine-doped sample .
Beside LiFePO4, Li2FeSiO4 was also investigated as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. A combined X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy study was used for the detailed crystal structure analysis of the powder synthesized by solid state method . The Rietveld crystal structure refinement of composite powder Li2FeSiO4/C is done in the monoclinic P21/n space group. It was found that the crystal structure is prone to “antisite” defect where small part of iron ion occupies exclusively Li(2) crystallographic position, of two different lithium tetrahedral positions (Li(1) and Li(2)). A bond-valence energy landscape calculation is used to predict the conduction pathways of lithium ions. The calculations suggest that Li conductivity is two-dimensional in the (101) plane. Upon galvanostatic cyclings the structure starts to rearrange to inverse βII polymorph.
 D. Jugović, D. Uskoković, A review of recent developments in the synthesis procedures of lithium iron phosphate powders, Journal of Power Sources. 190 (2009) 538–544. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.01.074.
 D. Jugović, M. Mitrić, M. Kuzmanović, N. Cvjetićanin, S. Škapin, B. Cekić, et al., Preparation of LiFePO4/C composites by co-precipitation in molten stearic acid, Journal of Power Sources. 196 (2011) 4613–4618. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.01.072.
 M. Milović, D. Jugović, N. Cvjetićanin, D. Uskoković, A.S. Milošević, Z.S. Popović, et al., Crystal structure analysis and first principle investigation of F doping in LiFePO4, Journal of Power Sources. 241 (2013) 70 – 79. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.109.
 D. Jugović, M. Milović, V.N. Ivanovski, M. Avdeev, R. Dominko, B. Jokić, et al., Structural study of monoclinic Li2FeSiO4 by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy, Journal of Power Sources. 265 (2014) 75 – 80. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.04.121.
Dragana Jugović, Dragan Uskoković
Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Serbia
F. Stergioudi, N. Michailidis*
Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (PML), Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
The inherent property of copper to act as an electron donor, contributing in redox reactions , implies that copper foams could be introduced into environmental applications, such as drinking water treatment.
The main aim of the study was to investigate the conditions under which copper foams can successfully operate as a means for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from drinking water. For this purpose, a space holder method using crystalline raw cane sugar as a novel leachable pattern for manufacturing open-cell copper foams, was proposed . For the specific application, the objective was to produce copper foams with controlled porosity, pore size and shape. To that end, copper foams having the same porosities but different pore size characteristics were used as filters for drinking water in order to assess the influence of the foams geometrical 3D structure on the water treatment application examined.
2. Copper foam preparation
Initially, the copper powder was mixed thoroughly with the crystalline raw cane sugar at a pre-specified weight ratio depending on the desired relative density of the final product. The mixture was uniaxially pressed at 210 MPa in a stainless steel cylindrical die with a diameter of 16 mm. The crystalline raw cane sugar was removed from the green compact by water leaching at room temperature. The final stage involved sintering performed in a vacuum furnace .
3. Results and discussion
Typical macroscopic morphologies and microscopic structures of the studied Cu-foams are shown in Figure 1. A network of well-bonded Cu particles is clear, since the original shape of the copper powder boundaries obtained by the compaction is not discernible.
Figure 1. Cu-foam samples of 65 % porosity with mean pore sizes of (a) 0.3 and (b) 0.5 mm and corresponding optical microscopy images indicating the microstructure of Cu-foam with mean pore sizes of (c) 0.3 and (d) 0.5 mm.
The SEM micrographs of Figures 1c and 1d reveal differences in the microstructures of the two foams concerning microporosity. When using small sugar particles to produce the Cu-foams, the micropores are uniformly shaped, small in size (~5 μm) and randomly dispersed in the foam cell walls. When using large sugar particles, the pore shape is very similar, however the micropores appear to be located at the grain boundaries with orientations mainly perpendicular to the compaction direction.
To obtain a morphological representation of the foam from reconstructed X-ray computed tomography data and quantify pore-scale parameters such as porosity and specific surface area, a binarization process was implemented to separate images into discrete phases (e.g. solid particles and void space). Once a distinct grey level peak is visible in the histogram, it is possible to accurately determine appropriate thresholds (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. 3D geometry of Cu-foam having 65 % porosity and mean pore sizes of (a) 0.3 mm and (b) 0.5 mm.
Foam samples were subjected to column tests to determine their Cr(VI) adsorption efficiency under realistic water treatment conditions. Each experimental cycle lasted more than a month in order to collect statistically significant results concerning residual Cr(VI) concentrations at various pH values. It is worth noting that during this long-term procedure there were no indications that the reducing efficiency of the Cu-foam decreased .
The results of the processed computed tomography data are shown in Figure 3 for the Cu-foam with a mean pore size of 0.5 mm used in the test-column experiments. The homogeneous distribution of the surface layer is clearly evident in Figures 3b and 7 c highlighting the open-cell structure of the foam and interconnectivity of the pores. For reasons of clarity the surface layer is illustrated separately in Figures 3d and 7 e. A quantification of the surface layer in terms of volume percentage was estimated to 4-5 % of the total volume of the foam (including pores) or 17 % of the total volume of the solid phases of the foam (e.g. copper, oxides, etc.).
Figure 3. Tomograms of 0.5 mm pore-sized Cu-foam after the Cr(VI) removal experiments showing the distribution of the surface layer on metal foam in (a) a longitudinal section and (d) cross-section, along with a separate illustration of the surface layers (b) and (e), respectively. (c) Intensity histogram for the full image volume of the copper foam sample.
Copper foams were manufactured by a dissolution and powder sintering process using crystalline raw cane sugar as a leachable pore former, to examine the possibility of using these foams as a means for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from drinking water. The production method is cost-effective and environmentally friendly, whilst it allows remarkable control on the uniformity of the foam structure. Among the structural features of the examined foams, cell wall thickness and pore mean size were found to have a noteworthy effect on Cr(VI) removal capacity of the foam. By decreasing the pore size, the removal of Cr(VI) is achieved at pH values around 7 dictating the potential use of such foams as water treatment units or household filters.
 Pratt AR, Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ. Products of Chromate Reduction on Proposed Subsurface Remediation Material. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997;31:2492-2498.
 Michailidis N, Stergioudi F, Tsipas DN. Manufacturing of Open-Cell Metal Foams Using a Novel Leachable Pattern. Adv. Eng. Mater. 2011;13:29-32.
 Stergioudi F, Kaprara E, Simeonidis K, Sagris D, Mitrakas M, Vourlias G, Michailidis N, Copper foams in water treatment technology: Removal of hexavalent chromium, Materials and Design, 2015;87:287-294.
In Austria additive manufacturing (AM) processes becomes high potential technologies for industrial application and the production of near net shape, complex parts. Mid of 2015 a flag ship project was started dealing with industrial oriented research issues. The addmanu project (www.addmanu.at) forms a national research network (20 national and international partners) with an international scientific board in order to find recognition and acceptance within the Austrian economy.
Four AM technologies are brought into focus (Lithography based AM, Fused deposition Modelling FDM, Inkjet and Selective Laser Melting), which have the largest potential for industrial application and further development. Cross-sectional issues, like system integration, business models are covered in the project. Within addmanu, the R&D-activities are divided in four areas: materials development, design and dimensioning, process-specific and application-oriented aspects, each for metals and non-metals. Focussing on the metallurgical aspects the most important families of metallic engineering materials (Al, steels, Ni-base materials) are included.
The most important metallurgy oriented objectives are:
Material developments for improved processing and service properties of AM-built components, like new powder materials and hybrids (composites, segmented structures etc.) The innovation potential of AM-processes will primarily depend on the designer’s creativity and the use of sophisticated FEM-software packages for light weight design. By adaption of methods like topology and shape optimization to AM-specific issues and coupling with extremely fine lattice structures, novel solutions are generated and new user markets can be generated.
All information concerning topics, sponsoring, exhibition, and more is available on our website www.mamc2016.org
Text: Dr. Brigitte Kriszt (Montanuniversitaet), Dr. Bruno Hribernik (ASMET), Leoben Austria
Metallurgy concerns the materials science and the technology of metals, the processing, product building and industrial exploitation of metals. It is the core activity underpinning primary metals production, alloying and processing, production and strategic use management (e.g.: reuse and recycling). These activities account for 46% of the total manufacturing value and 11% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) in the European Union.
At present metallurgy requires expenditures of energy, extraction of raw materials – coal, ore, use of expensive alloying elements, pre-processing, etc. However, such expenditures continue to decline as processes become more efficient and proficient, limiting the risk of pollution. The development of new technologies, including nanotechnologies, raw material and waste minimization and energy conservation has always been at the forefront of metallurgical process innovations.
Thus, further development of material science and metallurgy provides opportunities for the foreseeable future to enhance classical metallurgy, taking into consideration its major problems in economy, energy, environmental and social direction, with fundamentally new processes. These processes will have a significant impact on both the global economy and the social image of society.
The strategy of the metallurgy industry will havefour main thrusts:
The field of metallurgy covers the entire innovation landscape from discovering scientific basics to developing new applications and products, large-scale production innovation, monitoring metallurgical changes of the materials under service conditions, recycling/recovering the materials.. Metallurgy contributes significantly to solutions of the grand societal challenges in Europe.
Historically, Europe has been strong in metallurgy. However, to compete today with America and Asia and to maintain its patent priority on metal-based products, Europe must increase its efforts to make metallurgical discoveries and develop innovation in its products and production capabilities. Many stakeholders have pointed to the necessity of reinforcing Europe's strategic industrial strength in metals. They have called for a pan-European effort to strengthen the "metallurgical infrastructure" in Europe consisting of academic, industrial and governmental organizations through a dedicated R&D and Innovation programme for metallurgy in Europe.
It was recognised that for this effort, to be successful, it must fulfil four standard quality criteria:
• The goal of the programme must be ambitious and ground breaking,
• The teams engaged must be the best ones,
• The benchmarks and milestones must be appropriate and adequately measureable,
• The control feedback must be accurate, fast and effective in directing the programme.
The “Metallurgy made in and for Europe”roadmap identifies alternate technology paths for meeting certain performance objectives. It is driven by a need and is an important tool for collaborative technology planning and coordination for companies.
Even today there is a tendency for forward planning to be a linear extrapolation from current competences and capabilities which results in a future of limited opportunities (Figure1). By focusing on areas of future need and projecting backwards to the present, a broader scope of potential can be addressed and multiple pathways found to reach the targets (Figure 2).
(Source: Lecture by Rebecca Radnor, North Western University 1999___Culture Issues in Global Technology Relations)
The approaches employed in pursuing a Figure 2 methodology will cater for the inclusion of disruptive concepts. These approaches are equally valid at the level of Member States and the EU.
The Commission sought and received the views of many businesses and interest groups during the development of the Metallurgy Roadmap, through debates and workshops, position papers, personal interactions. At these interactions there were present European associations, European Technology Platforms, networks of research organizations, companies.
The Science Position Paper of the European Science Foundation on a programme for Metallurgy in Europe for 2012-202 was included in the roadmap considerations. The summary requirements in this Position Paper have been reflected and confirmed in the outcomes of the roadmapping exercise.
The European stakeholders presented their viewpoints on key trends and challenges for metallurgy in Europe. Their points can be organised along five broad lines:
In Manufacturing, the following categories were considered by most of European associations and Technology Platforms: (i) Powder metallurgy and Forming; (ii) Joining technologies; and (iii) Improved processes.
The category New and improved materials grouped the issues raised by the European stakeholders in (i). Metals and alloys; (ii). Coatings and treatments; (iii). Functional and multi-functional materials; (iv). Metal Matrix Composites, MMC; and (v). Improved material performance.
(i). Metals and alloys. Most of European stakeholders included metals and alloys among their main needs for research and innovation: multi-metals; new metals; conventional alloys (new single crystal alloys for HT turbine blades. weldable alloys for temperatures higher than IN718 and Ti-6-4 for engine structures); conventional materials mechanical behaviour and damage (Cr-base alloys, Ni-base alloys, Ti-alloys); new alloys; develop a better understanding of alloy behaviour during thermo-mechanical processing; develop a more in-depth understanding of the effect of trace elements on the properties of recycled alloys; a better understanding of the corrosion - strength - formability balance of high-strength aluminium alloys; accelerated synthesis, discovery and insertion of new alloys into real applications; higher temperature capabilities and alloy phase stability, especially for energy systems or other extreme environments ; aluminum alloys (cost reduction by use of secondary alloys, foams); designing alloys for high recycling rates; High strength metallics / alloys made with abundant alloying elements; scatter of alloying elements in the production process and properties of highly stressed components made of recycled alloys (secondary materials); multi-physical damage of new magnet alloys; austenitic steels and ferritic-martensitic steels but also nickel based super alloys; new metals and alloys to meet the functional requirements strength, corrosion, wear, conductivity).
The industry requirements related to (iii). Functional and multi-functional materials; (iv). Intermetallics (for example, TiAl used in turbine blades; high temp intermetallics); and (v). Metal Matrix Composites were addressed withinn the Roadmap by sectors Transport, Energy, Construction. The broad category of (vi). Improved material performance, including lightweight (for instance, mechanic performance; environmental performance and REACH compliance; multi-parameter optimisation of performance; predictability of product performance) was addressed in the Roadmap by all sectors.
The Recycling and recovery category of challenges raised by the European stakeholders (, as well as the Modelling and simulation, were addressed in the Roadmap within each sector, and the key issues of Energy efficiency were considered in the Transport and Consumer goods sectors.
Research Topics and Champions
To achieve the goals in a medium term, we suggest the European Commission consider the topics recommended below as "champions" in the area of enabling-tools.
Topic 1: High-throughput experimentation and assessment for the construction of a material database for advanced materials to meet urgent industrial needs. It should include in future calls advanced material-characterisation instrumentation and fast procedures for the development and validation of a co-ordinated materials database with a clear emphasis on metallurgy.
Topic 2: ModellingofNew Metallic-Materials with Life-Time Approach and Creation of European Metallic-Material-Models Library. Significant results in material-modelling have been made/achieved in Europe. However, to fully take advantages of these for the benefit of the industry, these need to be further developed and need to connect the whole life-cycle process (e.g. considering design, manufacturing, environment, and recycling) to meet latest and future industry needs.
Topic 3: Integrated Computational Platform for Life-Metallurgy-Engineering and Product Innovations. An integrated computational platform is needed to: support Europe in metal-product innovations; enable much more efficient "Materials by Design" and moving towards "Material-industry as a service"; significantly shorten the material development cycle; and effectively monitoring and predicting metals' life-time performance, etc. It would need to integrate different models, material-databases, computational techniques and software-tools, to address all material-processing steps, life-time performance prediction for both existing and emerging materials.
Topic 4: European Network of Excellence for Enabling Tools for Metallurgy. A European Network of Excellence (NOE) in metallurgical enabling-tools could be a vehicle to drive and facilitate such integration effectively and to act as a executing body to address many cross-cutting issues, e.g. a European Platform (virtual institute) of Metal Physics to work closely with metallurgically based industries to identify fundamental mechanisms of deformation and failure through a combination of characterization, mechanical testing and simulations based on physical models. This platform would also provide education and training in metal physics for engineers and metal physicists in industry.
Topic 5 – Identify common fundamental deformation and failure processes across a range of industrial sectors, including nuclear power, aerospace, automotive and metal production, and formulating theoretical and computational strategies to model them. Examples include fatigue crack initiation, slip transmission at interfaces, hydrogen embrittlement, micro-structural evolution under irradiation and concomitant changes to the ductile to brittle transition, and plastic deformation under shock loading.
Link-up “champion” topics to Horizon 2020
Factories of the future, (FoF), PPP
Resource-efficient Processing Industry, (SPIRE), PPP
Energy-efficient Buildings, (EeB), PPP (CON2, )
Green Vehicles, (EGVI) PPP
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen, (FCH) JTI
Aeronautics and Air Transport, (Clean Sky) JTI
Nanoelectronics, (ENIAC) JTI
Active and healthy ageing, EIP
Sustainable Agriculture, EIP
Smart cities and communities, EIP
Raw materials, EIP
‘Metallurgy Europe – A Renaissance Programme for 2012-2022’, Science Position Paper of the Materials Science and Engineering Expert Committee (MatSEEC) of the European Science Foundation, 2011